Specific Considerations with Pulmonary Disease - Identification of the Patient at Risk
is a topic covered in the Clinical Anesthesia Procedures
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- Patient-related information to be obtained, per meta-analysis, includes advanced age (>60), preexisting lung disease (e.g., COPD), and nonpulmonary information related to overall physical fitness and conditions (ASA-PS 2 or greater, poor functional status, malnutrition, and CHF). Other risk factors may include hypoxemia, anemia, obstructive sleep apnea (OSA), recent respiratory infection, and current sepsis. Among laboratory predictors, good evidence exists only for low serum albumin levels (<30 g/L) in predicting POPCs.
- Symptoms of respiratory disease such as cough, expectoration, hemoptysis, wheezing, dyspnea, and chest pain should be elicited. Occupational exposures, medications, recent changes in clinical status as well as symptoms of OSA should be defined.
- Chronic cough may suggest bronchitis or asthma. If cough is productive, sputum should be examined for evidence of infection and, if appropriate, sent for Gram stain, culture, or cytology.
- Smoking history should be quantified in pack years (number of packs smoked per day multiplied by the number of years smoked). The risks of malignancy, COPD, and POPCs are directly proportional to the smoking history.
- Dyspnea is an uncomfortable sensation of breathing. The activity level should be defined; severe dyspnea (occurring at minimal activity or at rest) may be a predictor of both poor ventilatory reserve and the need for postoperative ventilatory support.
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Pino, Richard M., editor. "Specific Considerations With Pulmonary Disease - Identification of the Patient at Risk." Clinical Anesthesia Procedures, 9th ed., Wolters Kluwer, 2019. Anesthesia Central, anesth.unboundmedicine.com/anesthesia/view/ClinicalAnesthesiaProcedures/728130/all/Specific_Considerations_with_Pulmonary_Disease___Identification_of_the_Patient_at_Risk.
Specific Considerations with Pulmonary Disease - Identification of the Patient at Risk. In: Pino RM, ed. Clinical Anesthesia Procedures. 9th ed. Wolters Kluwer; 2019. https://anesth.unboundmedicine.com/anesthesia/view/ClinicalAnesthesiaProcedures/728130/all/Specific_Considerations_with_Pulmonary_Disease___Identification_of_the_Patient_at_Risk. Accessed April 23, 2019.
Specific Considerations with Pulmonary Disease - Identification of the Patient at Risk. (2019). In Pino, R. M. (Ed.), Clinical Anesthesia Procedures. Available from https://anesth.unboundmedicine.com/anesthesia/view/ClinicalAnesthesiaProcedures/728130/all/Specific_Considerations_with_Pulmonary_Disease___Identification_of_the_Patient_at_Risk
Specific Considerations With Pulmonary Disease - Identification of the Patient at Risk [Internet]. In: Pino RM, editors. Clinical Anesthesia Procedures. Wolters Kluwer; 2019. [cited 2019 April 23]. Available from: https://anesth.unboundmedicine.com/anesthesia/view/ClinicalAnesthesiaProcedures/728130/all/Specific_Considerations_with_Pulmonary_Disease___Identification_of_the_Patient_at_Risk.
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