Specific Considerations with Cardiac Disease - Ischemic Heart Disease
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Coronary artery disease afflicts an estimated 30% of patients undergoing surgery in the United States. CAD increases in prevalence with age. Other risk factors include hypercholesterolemia, male gender, hypertension, cigarette smoking, diabetes mellitus, obesity, and family history of premature development of ischemic heart disease. CAD is a risk factor for perioperative cardiac complications, including MI, unstable angina, congestive heart failure (CHF), and serious dysrhythmias.