Specific Considerations with Endocrine Disease - Calcium Metabolism and Parathyroid Disease

Specific Considerations with Endocrine Disease - Calcium Metabolism and Parathyroid Disease is a topic covered in the Clinical Anesthesia Procedures.

To view the entire topic, please or purchase a subscription.

Anesthesia Central is an all-in-one web and mobile solution for treating patients before, during, and after surgery. This collection of drug, procedures and test information is derived from Davis’s Drug, MGH Clinical Anesthesia Procedures, Pocket Guide to Diagnostic Tests, and MEDLINE Journals. Explore these free sample topics:

Anesthesia Central

-- The first section of this topic is shown below --

Physiology

Calcium is essential for neuromuscular excitability, cardiac automaticity, mitotic division, coagulation, muscle contraction, neurotransmitter and hormone secretion and action, and the activity of many enzymes. Parathyroid hormone (PTH) and vitamin D maintain the extracellular calcium concentration within a narrow range. PTH increases intestinal calcium absorption, increases osteoclastic release of calcium and phosphorus from bone, decreases renal clearance of calcium, and enhances formation of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D by the kidney. Levels of ionized calcium and magnesium determine the secretion of PTH. Vitamin D augments the effects of PTH and is necessary for calcium absorption from the GI tract. Calcitonin from thyroid “C” cells lowers calcium and phosphorous concentrations by inhibiting renal calcium reabsorption and osteoclast activity but has a limited physiologic role in humans.

Serum calcium is divided into bound (primarily to albumin) and unbound (free, ionized) forms. Phosphate, citrate, and other anions complex about 6% of the total serum calcium. Hypoalbuminemia produces a decrease in total calcium of approximately 0.8 mg/dL for each gram per deciliter of albumin below normal (4.0 g/dL). Acidosis increases, and alkalosis decreases, ionized calcium due to alterations in albumin binding. Ionized calcium, the physiologically important form, can be measured directly in whole blood.

-- To view the remaining sections of this topic, please or purchase a subscription --

Citation

* When formatting your citation, note that all book, journal, and database titles should be italicized* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - ELEC T1 - Specific Considerations with Endocrine Disease - Calcium Metabolism and Parathyroid Disease ID - 728155 ED - Pino,Richard M, BT - Clinical Anesthesia Procedures UR - https://anesth.unboundmedicine.com/anesthesia/view/ClinicalAnesthesiaProcedures/728155/all/Specific_Considerations_with_Endocrine_Disease___Calcium_Metabolism_and_Parathyroid_Disease PB - Wolters Kluwer ET - 9 DB - Anesthesia Central DP - Unbound Medicine ER -