Specific Considerations with Endocrine Disease - Calcium Metabolism and Parathyroid Disease
is a topic covered in the Clinical Anesthesia Procedures
To view the entire topic, please sign in or purchase a subscription.
Anesthesia Central is an all-in-one web and mobile solution for treating patients before, during, and after surgery. This collection of drug, procedures and test information is derived from Davis’s Drug, MGH Clinical Anesthesia Procedures, Pocket Guide to Diagnostic Tests, and MEDLINE Journals. Explore these free sample topics:
-- The first section of this topic is shown below --
Calcium is essential for neuromuscular excitability, cardiac automaticity, mitotic division, coagulation, muscle contraction, neurotransmitter and hormone secretion and action, and the activity of many enzymes. Parathyroid hormone (PTH) and vitamin D maintain the extracellular calcium concentration within a narrow range. PTH increases intestinal calcium absorption, increases osteoclastic release of calcium and phosphorus from bone, decreases renal clearance of calcium, and enhances formation of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D by the kidney. Levels of ionized calcium and magnesium determine the secretion of PTH. Vitamin D augments the effects of PTH and is necessary for calcium absorption from the GI tract. Calcitonin from thyroid “C” cells lowers calcium and phosphorous concentrations by inhibiting renal calcium reabsorption and osteoclast activity but has a limited physiologic role in humans.
Serum calcium is divided into bound (primarily to albumin) and unbound (free, ionized) forms. Phosphate, citrate, and other anions complex about 6% of the total serum calcium. Hypoalbuminemia produces a decrease in total calcium of approximately 0.8 mg/dL for each gram per deciliter of albumin below normal (4.0 g/dL). Acidosis increases, and alkalosis decreases, ionized calcium due to alterations in albumin binding. Ionized calcium, the physiologically important form, can be measured directly in whole blood.
-- To view the remaining sections of this topic, please sign in or purchase a subscription --
Pino, Richard M., editor. "Specific Considerations With Endocrine Disease - Calcium Metabolism and Parathyroid Disease." Clinical Anesthesia Procedures, 9th ed., Wolters Kluwer, 2019. Anesthesia Central, anesth.unboundmedicine.com/anesthesia/view/ClinicalAnesthesiaProcedures/728155/all/Specific_Considerations_with_Endocrine_Disease___Calcium_Metabolism_and_Parathyroid_Disease.
Specific Considerations with Endocrine Disease - Calcium Metabolism and Parathyroid Disease. In: Pino RM, ed. Clinical Anesthesia Procedures. 9th ed. Wolters Kluwer; 2019. https://anesth.unboundmedicine.com/anesthesia/view/ClinicalAnesthesiaProcedures/728155/all/Specific_Considerations_with_Endocrine_Disease___Calcium_Metabolism_and_Parathyroid_Disease. Accessed April 25, 2019.
Specific Considerations with Endocrine Disease - Calcium Metabolism and Parathyroid Disease. (2019). In Pino, R. M. (Ed.), Clinical Anesthesia Procedures. Available from https://anesth.unboundmedicine.com/anesthesia/view/ClinicalAnesthesiaProcedures/728155/all/Specific_Considerations_with_Endocrine_Disease___Calcium_Metabolism_and_Parathyroid_Disease
Specific Considerations With Endocrine Disease - Calcium Metabolism and Parathyroid Disease [Internet]. In: Pino RM, editors. Clinical Anesthesia Procedures. Wolters Kluwer; 2019. [cited 2019 April 25]. Available from: https://anesth.unboundmedicine.com/anesthesia/view/ClinicalAnesthesiaProcedures/728155/all/Specific_Considerations_with_Endocrine_Disease___Calcium_Metabolism_and_Parathyroid_Disease.
TY - ELEC
T1 - Specific Considerations with Endocrine Disease - Calcium Metabolism and Parathyroid Disease
ID - 728155
ED - Pino,Richard M,
BT - Clinical Anesthesia Procedures
UR - https://anesth.unboundmedicine.com/anesthesia/view/ClinicalAnesthesiaProcedures/728155/all/Specific_Considerations_with_Endocrine_Disease___Calcium_Metabolism_and_Parathyroid_Disease
PB - Wolters Kluwer
ET - 9
DB - Anesthesia Central
DP - Unbound Medicine