Anesthesia for Thoracic Surgery - Endoscopic Procedures

Endoscopic procedures include direct or indirect visualization of the pharynx, larynx, esophagus, trachea, and bronchi. Endoscopy may be undertaken to obtain biopsy samples, delineate upper airway anatomy, remove obstructing foreign bodies, assess hemoptysis, place stents and guidewires, position radiation catheters, apply photodynamic therapy, and perform laser surgery.

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