Specific Considerations with Cardiac Disease - Congestive Heart Failure

Heart failure results from impairment of ventricular function. Heart failure manifests as dispend, fatigue, decreased exercise tolerance, and pulmonary or peripheral edema. Heart failure can be classified into two categories: (1) heart failure with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF) that is associated with variable degrees of LV enlargement and depressed ventricular ejection and (2) heart failure with preserved EF (HFpEF) in which diastolic dysfunction is pronounced.

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