Specific Considerations with Cardiac Disease - Congestive Heart Failure
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Heart failure results from impairment of ventricular function. Heart failure manifests as dispend, fatigue, decreased exercise tolerance, and pulmonary or peripheral edema. Heart failure can be classified into two categories: (1) heart failure with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF) that is associated with variable degrees of LV enlargement and depressed ventricular ejection and (2) heart failure with preserved EF (HFpEF) in which diastolic dysfunction is pronounced.
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Pino, Richard M., editor. "Specific Considerations With Cardiac Disease - Congestive Heart Failure." Clinical Anesthesia Procedures, 9th ed., Wolters Kluwer, 2019. Anesthesia Central, anesth.unboundmedicine.com/anesthesia/view/ClinicalAnesthesiaProcedures/728470/all/Specific_Considerations_with_Cardiac_Disease___Congestive_Heart_Failure.
Specific Considerations with Cardiac Disease - Congestive Heart Failure. In: Pino RM, ed. Clinical Anesthesia Procedures. 9th ed. Wolters Kluwer; 2019. https://anesth.unboundmedicine.com/anesthesia/view/ClinicalAnesthesiaProcedures/728470/all/Specific_Considerations_with_Cardiac_Disease___Congestive_Heart_Failure. Accessed April 21, 2019.
Specific Considerations with Cardiac Disease - Congestive Heart Failure. (2019). In Pino, R. M. (Ed.), Clinical Anesthesia Procedures. Available from https://anesth.unboundmedicine.com/anesthesia/view/ClinicalAnesthesiaProcedures/728470/all/Specific_Considerations_with_Cardiac_Disease___Congestive_Heart_Failure
Specific Considerations With Cardiac Disease - Congestive Heart Failure [Internet]. In: Pino RM, editors. Clinical Anesthesia Procedures. Wolters Kluwer; 2019. [cited 2019 April 21]. Available from: https://anesth.unboundmedicine.com/anesthesia/view/ClinicalAnesthesiaProcedures/728470/all/Specific_Considerations_with_Cardiac_Disease___Congestive_Heart_Failure.
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